Augustus (Latin: IMPERATOReCAESAReDIVIeFILIVSeAVGVSTVS;[note 1] September 23, 63 BC - August 19, AD 14), born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and was thenceforth known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Latin: GAIVSeIVLIVSeCAESAReOCTAVIANVS). After his adoption, he became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. In 43 BC, Octavianus joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. As a Triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces[note 2] as an autocrat, seizing consular power after the deaths of the consuls Hirtius and Pansa and having himself perpetually re-elected. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian in 31 BC
Medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine
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